For all the listed SiliaBond sorbents from SiliCycle, particle size is 40 – 63 μm and pore diameter is 60 Å. Please note that any irregular SiliaFlash or spherical SiliaSphere PC silica gel, with the function of your choice can be accommodated. Simply contact us for more information.

All functionalized SiliaBond sorbents are available in bulk but also pre-packed in SiliaPrep SPE cartridges and SiliaSep flash cartridges.

In geneal 3 type of phase are recognized in chromatography:

Normal/Straight Phases

  • In normal phase chromatography, the packing material is always polar while the mobile phase is non polar. The interactions between analytes and sorbent mainly take place on the highly polar silanols of the silica gel surface. Some hydrogen bonds can also happen on polar functionalized groups. Usual normal phases are ungrafted silica, polar functions (amino, cyano and diol) or alternative adsorbents (Alumina and Florisil for example).

Reversed-Phases

  • In reversed-phase chromatography, the packing material is always hydrophobic (non polar) while the mobile phase is polar. The more hydrophobic the packing material, the more retention of non polar analytes. Usual reversed-phases are standard alkyl chains grafted on silica (C18, C8, C4, C1) and cyclic or aromatic functions (Phenyl, Pentafluorophenyl, Cyclohexyl).
  • Important parameters to keep in mind in reversed-phase chromatography:
    • Carbon load (% C) will give the relative hydrophobicity of the packing media. Most of the time, it varies between 4% and 19%.
    • Endcapping: it is impossible to react with all available silanol groups (free -OH groups on the silica surface) when functionalizing silica. But these free silanols are acidic and will react with basic compounds, so we endcap them with a capping agent to avoid non-specific bindings.

Ion Exchange Phases

  • In ion exchange chromatography, both silica support and analytes must be ionized. If the stationary phase (packing material) is positively charged, anionic analytes only will retain (these phases are called WAX & SAX). And in the contrary if the stationary phase is negatively charged, cationic analytes only will retain (these phases are called WCX & SCX). Hence, pH of the mobile phase is of crucial importance and needs to be chosen carefully, so that both functions are charged.

Although a standard procedure for straight/normal phase (flash) chromatography does not exist, in general 4 operation steps can be recognized. The analyte properties are normally considered slightly to moderate polar and uncharged. The matrix sample properties are those of organic solvents. Typical solvents used, in increasing polarity are hexane, dichloromethane, THF, acetone and acetonitril. A much wider range and combination thereof is of course applicable.

  • Conditioning
    • sample solvent or methanol
  • Sample loading
    • dissolve analyte in low polar solvents
  • Washing
    • non polar solvents
  • Elution
    • mixture of non-polar (5-50%) and polar solvent
    • stepwise increasing the polarity as a gradient is often applied

Typically the flow rates and loading capacity below can be used as guide for the pre-packed silica (40-63um/60A) cartridges mentioned. Of course the loading capacity strongly depends on the sample mixture and elution protocol, but in general 10% loading is considered as maximum. Application of 25-40um/60A silica may increase the loading capacity to 15%. Performance can be further enhanced by application of spherical silica.

Cartridge Volume (g)Flow Rate (mL/min)Loading Capacity (g)
4 g15 - 250.4
12 g20 - 401.2
25 g20 - 452.5
40 g25 - 504.0
80 g40 - 808.0
120 g60 - 12012
220 g60 - 18022
330 g80 - 18033
750 g200 - 30075
1500g350 - 450150

As for straight phase, for reversed phase chromatorgrapy also no standard procedure exists. The analyte properties are normally considered non-polar, uncharged or neutralized and hydrophobic. The matrix sample properties are those of an aqueous organic buffer. Typical buffer solvents used, in increasing polarity are THF, acetone, ethylacetate, acetonitrile and methanol.

  • Conditioning
    • water miscible organic solvents
  • Sample loading
    • dissolve analyte in highly polar solvents
  • Washing
    • aqueous of buffered solution and polar solvents
  • Elution
    • polar or non-polar organic solvents

For reserved phase chromaography typically the flow rates are similar to the flowrates for straight/normal (flash) chromatography. Please note that although the loading capacity again strongly depends on the sample mixture and elution protocol, it is much lower compared to straight/normal phase and is limited to approximately 1-2%.

Cartridge Volume (g)Flow Rate (mL/min)Loading Capacity (g)
4 g15 - 250.04
12 g20 - 400.12
25 g20 - 450.25
40 g25 - 500.4
80 g40 - 800.8
120 g60 - 1201,2
220 g60 - 1802,2
330 g80 - 1803,3
750 g200 - 3007,5
1500g350 - 45015

When you are still a bit new to Solid Phase Extraction (SPE), some assistance makes your life easier to get results. SiliCycle has prepared a nice general method development procedure. Solid Phase Exchangers need to be pre-treated for optimal performance. Depending on the properties of your product and side-products, the correct sorbent is to be selected.

Weak acids can be extracted with strong anion exchangers, weak bases with strong cation exchangers. On the other side strong acids are extracted with weak anion exchangers and strong bases are extracted with weak cation exchangers. Special phases are available for extraction of drugs,  polyaromatic hydrocarbons and polychloorbifenyl’s type of compounds.

You will find below the link to a step-by-step procedure to help you develop your SPE method depending on the sorbent you’re using, your matrix and your analyte properties. When you have remaining questions – simply Contact Us!

Please note that the cartridges packed with SPE material are available in any size and material. Besides single cartridges also in 96-well format.

ProductDescription / Typical Application
SiliaBond C18 (17%C) Monomeric nec (R33330B)This non-endcapped version of the SiliaBond® C18 15.5% BDS, presents a perfect monolayer of dimethyloctadecylsilane and silanol functions. The hydrophilic/hydrophobic balance is permitting to use a mobile phase with a higher concentration of water and ion pairing conditions for separation of biomolecules.
SiliaBond C8 (11.6%C) Polymeric nec (R31130B)SiliaBond® C8 (or C8) is a reversed-phase matrix with a moderate degree of hydrophobicity that works well for separating a wide range of compounds. It can be used instead of C18 when shorter retention times are desired.
SiliaBond C4 (8%C) Polymeric nec (R32130B)SiliaBond® C4 (or C4) provides less retention towards non-polar compounds than C18 and C8, and is useful in ion-pairing chromatography or to separate large biomolecules. It works best for molecules with a large hydrophilic region or in case where the hydrophobic region is buried within the structure
SiliaBond C2 (5%C) Polymeric (R32530B)SiliaBond C2 nec is a non-polar sorbent and presents a moderate hydrophobicity. This phase is used to extract extremely non-polar compounds.
SiliaBond C2 (5%C) Polymeric nec (R32630B)SiliaBond® C2 nec is a non-polar sorbent and presents a moderate hydrophobicity. This phase is used to extract extremely non-polar compounds.
SiliaBond Phenyl (PHE) nec (R34130B)SiliaBond Phenyl (Si-PHE) is a sorbent of medium polarity used in reversed-phase chromatography. It has similar retention than C8 but with different selectivity especially for molecules containing aromatics and fatty acids.
SiliaBond Propyl Chloride (PCL) (R59030B)SiliaBond® Propyl Chloride can be used as solid support for further derivatization.
SiliaBond Cyclohexyldiol (CGD) (R63030B)SiliaBond Cyclohexyldiol may be used as polar sorbent in normal phase and aqueous size exclustion chromatography.
SiliaBond TBA Chloride (R65530B)SiliaBond TBA Chloride (Si-TBACl) may be used in the same way as SiliaBond TMA Chloride. Si-TBACl is more sterically indered, which offers a different selectivity than other anion exchangers
SiliaBond Urea (R67030B)SiliaBond Urea (Si-Urea) can be used for cationic surfactants adsorbtion1 and as polar stationary phase for chromatography.
SiliaMetS TAAcONa nec (R69230B)SiliaMetS TAAcONa or (or SiliaMetS Triaminetetraacetate, sodium salt) is a silica bound metal scavenger for Pd(II), Ni(II) and Cu. It is the supported version of EDTA in its sodium salt form. It is an effective scavenger for metals in higher oxidation state, 2+ or higher.
SiliaMetS Thiourea (THU) (R69530B)SiliaMetS Thiourea (Si-THU) is a versatile metal scavenger for all forms of palladium and is widely used in the pharmaceutical industry. It works particularly well in organic solvents. It can also be used to scavenge Ag, Pt, Ru, Rh and Hg. Once complexed with a transition metal, it has been reported as being an effective catalyst
SiliaMetS Cysteine (CYS) (R80530B)SiliaMetS Cysteine (Si-Cys) is the silica bound equivalent of the amino acid Cysteine. It is a versatile metal scavenger for a variety of metals including Pd, Sn, Ru, Pt, Cu, Rh, Cd and Sc under a wide range of conditions and the preferred metal scavenger for tin residues.
SiliaBond Isocyanate (ISO) (R50030B)Scavenger for Nucleophiles (Covalent Bonding). Molecules removed: Acyl Chlorides, Aldehydes, Anhydrides, Chloroformates, Isocyanates, Ketones & Sulfonyl Chlorides
SiliaBond Glycidoxy (GLY) nec (R36030B)SiliaBond® Glycidoxy (Si-GLY) may be used as a linker for further modification of the surface and for the immobilization of molecules bearing amino, hydroxy, mercapto and thiocarboxylic acid groups.
SiliaBond Pyridine (PYR) (R43030B)SiliaBond Pyridine (Si-PYR) can be used as a tertiary amine for acid removal. It can also anchor Cu2+ ions and then be used as a catalyst for hydroquinone oxidation.
SiliaBond Dimethylamine (DMA) (R45030B)SiliaBond Dimethylamine is a silica bound tertiary amine base that can be used in most applications requiring a tertiary amine, particularly as a HCl sponge. Silica bound ammonium salt by-products are easily separated by filtration. This dimethylamine immobilized on silica gel can be used as a base catalyst in Michael or Knoevenagel reactions. It can also be used as a catalyst for alkane oxidation.
SiliaBond Propylsulfonic Acid (SCX-2) (R51230B)Strong acid widely used in different fields of synthetic organic chemistry. Among these applications, we denote their uses as acid catalysts, stationary phases for ion chromatography and basic impurity scavengers. The most common use is probably as a strong cation exchanger (SCX) for the amine "Catch and Release" purification technique in SPE cartridges.
SiliaBond Propylsulfonic Acid nec (SCX-2) (R51430B)Strong acid widely used in different fields of synthetic organic chemistry. Among these applications, we denote their uses as acid catalysts, stationary phases for ion chromatography and basic impurity scavengers. The most common use is probably as a strong cation exchanger (SCX) for the amine "Catch and Release" purification technique in SPE cartridges.
SiliaBond Amine (WAX) nec (R52130B)SiliaBond Amine (Si-NH2) is an effective scavenger of acid chlorides, sulfonyl chlorides, isocyanates and other electrophiles. Si-NH2 has been shown to be effective metal scavenger and catalyst for Knoevenagel reactions. SiliaBond Amine is also used in chromatography as normal phase sorbent.
SiliaBond Allyl (R53530B)SiliaBond® Allyl (Si-Allyl) can be used as solid support for further derivatization.
SiliaBond Bromophenyl (BRP) (R55030B)SiliaBond® Bromophenyl (Si-BRP) can be used as solid support for further derivatization.
SiliaBond Propyl Bromide (PBR) (R55530B)SiliaBond® Propyl Bromide (Si-PBR) is a versatile solid support for amines and alcohols. It is more reactive than the chloride towards displacement.
SiliaBond Phenylmethylchloride (PMC) (R56530B)SiliaBond® Phenylmethylchloride (Si-PMC) can be used as solid support for further derivatization.
SiliaBond Piperazine (R60030B)SiliaBond Piperazine (Si-PPZ) is a useful deprotecting and scavenging agent for Fmoc1 and Bsmoc2 amino protecting groups and as a solid-phase Knoevenagel catalyst. According to the results of a study, Si-PPZ is superior to its polystyrene-based equivalent. SiliaBond Piperazine may also be used to scavenge electrophiles.
SiliaBond Tosic Acid nec (SCX) (R60430B)SiliaBond Tosic Acid (SiliaBond SCX, Si-TsOH) is a versatile bound strong acid with a pka <<1, widely used for the scavenging of amines and other basic functionalities, including weakly basic anilines, borohydrides, and metals such as Ni and Ag. It can also be used as an acid catalyst for organic reactions. Si-TsOH can serve as an alternative method to quench reactions instead of aqueous or organic soluble acids.
SiliaBond Tosic Acid (SCX) (R60530B)SiliaBond Tosic Acid (SiliaBond SCX, Si-TsOH) is a versatile bound strong acid with a pka <<1. It is widely used for the scavenging of amines and other basic functionalities, including weakly basic anilines, borohydrides, and metals such as Ni and Ag. It can also be used as an acid catalyst for organic reactions. Si-TsOH can serve as an alternative method to quench reactions instead of aqueous or organic soluble acids.
SiliaBond Carbonate (CO3) (R66030B)SiliaBond Carbonate (Si-CO3) is the silica bound equivalent of tetramethyl ammonium carbonate. It can be used as a general base to quench a reaction, to free base amines in their ammonium salt form and to scavenge acids and acidic phenols, including HOBt, which is widely used in amide coupling reactions.
SiliaBond Morpholine (MOR) (R68030B)SiliaBond® Morpholine (Si-MOR) is commonly used as an acid sponge. It is used in the same manner as morpholine functionalized polymers.
SiliaBond Carboxylic Acid (WCX) (R70030B)SiliaBond Carboxylic Acid (Si-CAA) can be used as a scavenger for amines or carbonates, and for the quench of alkoxides and organometallic reagents. SiliaBond Carboxylic Acid is primarily used as a weak cation exchanger (WCX) in solid phase extraction (SPE) and in HPLC.
SiliaBond Piperidine (PIP) (R71530B)SiliaBond Piperidine (Si-PIP) is a general purpose tertiary amine base to scavenge acids, thereby avoiding salt elimination problems. Also used as a base catalyst for Knoevenagel condensation.
SiliaBond DMAP (R75630B)SiliaBond DMAP (Si-DMAP) is the supported equivalent of 4-dimethylaminopyridine commonly used as a nucleophilic catalyst in a wide variety of reactions such as acylation, amidation or acetylation.
SiliaBond Triethylamine (TEA) (R76530B)SiliaBond Triethylamine (SiliaBond WAX-2) is a silica bound tertiary amine base and can be used in most applications requiring a tertiary amine, particularly as a HCl sponge. SiliaBond Triethylamine is also used as weak anion exchanger (WAX) in SPE.
SiliaMetS Triamine (R48030B)Effective for scavenging metals such as Pb, Co, Ru and Pd. Our screening studies have shown it to be the preferred scavenger for Pb. It can also be used as a scavenger for acid chlorides, isocyanates and other electrophiles.
SiliaBond Amine (WAX) (R52030B)SiliaBond Amine (Si-NH2) is an effective scavenger of acid chlorides, sulfonyl chlorides, isocyanates and other electrophiles. Si-NH2 has been shown to be effective metal scavenger and catalyst for Knoevenagel reactions. SiliaBond Amine is also used in chromatography as normal phase sorbent.
SiliaMetS TAAcOH nec (R69030B)SiliaMetS TAAcOH (SiliaMetS Triaminetetraacetic Acid) is a silica bound metal scavenger for Pd(0), Ni(0) and Cu. It is the supported version of EDTA in its free form. It is an effective scavenger for metals in low or zero oxidation states, which includes many of the most synthetically useful catalysts such as tetrakis-(triphenylphosphine)palladium(0).
SiliaMetS Imidazole (IMI) (R79230B)SiliaMetS Imidazole (Si-IMI) is a versatile metal scavenger for a variety of metals including Cd, Co, Cu, Fe, Ni, Pd, and Rh under a wide range of conditions and the preferred metal scavenger for iron catalysts. It can also be used as an amine base in systems that are generally sensitive to basic conditions compared to other SiliaMetS supported bases.
SiliaMetS Diamine (R49030B)A proven scavenger for metals and electrophiles. It scavenges acids, acid chlorides, anhydrides, aldehydes, isocyanates, and chloroformates as well as Pb, Ni, and Cd.
SiliaMetS Thiol (SH) (R51030B)Our most versatile and robust metal scavenger for a variety of metals under a wide range of conditions.
SiliaMetS DMT (Dimercaptotriazine) (R79030B)SiliaMetS DMT is the silica - bound equivalent of 2,4,6 - trimercaptotriazine (trithiocyanuric acid, TMT). It is a versatile metal scavenger for a variety of metals and the preferred metal scavenger for ruthenium catalysts and hindered Pd complexes (i.e. Pd(dppf)Cl2).
SiliaBond C18 (17%C) Monomeric (R33230B)The SiliaBond® C18 16% BDS is the most efficient deactivated C18 reversed-phase. This versatile support is the best choice for your applications in reversed-phase chromatography. This chromatographic phase has been compared with different competitors and presents a better separation for basic compounds.
SiliaBond C8 (11%C) Monomeric (R30830B)-
SiliaBond Cyclohexyl (CYH) (R61530B)SiliaBond Cyclohexyl (Si-CYH) is a sorbent of medium polarity used in reversed-phase chromatography. It has a different selectivity than the alkyl sorbents (C18, C8, C4, ...) and phenyl, and may be used when these fail to provide the desired selectivity.
SiliaBond Potassium Permanganate (KMNO4) (R23030B)Potassium permanganate (KMNO4) is a strong oxidant that will oxidize methyl groups and alcohols to carboxylic acids. SiliaBond® Potassium Permanganate (Si-KMnO4) increases recoveries, facilitates work-up, and expands the scope of the chemistry because it can be used in all organic solvents eliminating solubility issues. With SiliaBond Potassium Permanganate, the manganese salt by-products stays adsorbed onto the silica.
SiliaBond C4 (8%C) Polymeric (R32030B)SiliaBond C4 (or C4) provides less retention towards non-polar compounds than C18 and C8, and is useful in ion-pairing chromatography or to separate large biomolecules. It works best for molecules with a large hydrophilic region or in case where the hydrophobic region is buried within the structure.
SiliaBond C1 (5%C) Polymeric (R33030B)SiliaBond® C1 (or C1) has the lowest degree of hydrophobicity of all reversed stationary phases, useful in the separation of large biomolecules that have extensive hydrophobic regions.
SiliaBond Phenyl (PHE) (R34030B)SiliaBond Phenyl (Si-PHE) is a sorbent of medium polarity used in reversed-phase chromatography. It has similar retention than C8 but with different selectivity especially for molecules containing aromatics and fatty acids.
SiliaBond Pentafluorophenyl (PFP) (R67530B)SiliaBond® Pentafluorophenyl (Si-PFP) is a sorbent primarily used in the separation of molecules bearing fluorine atoms but may also be used in the separation of non-fluorous compounds such as Taxol® and its derivatives. Because of its phenyl ring, Si-PFP has a higher selectivity for aromatics containing molecules compared to the other fluorinated sorbents.
SiliaBond Cyano (CN, 7%C) (R38030B)SiliaBond Cyano (Si-CN) can be used both in normal and reversed-phase chromatography as its polarity marks the separation between the polar and non-polar phases. SiliaBond Cyano is the least retentive polar sorbent in normal phase chromatography and the least retentive of the non-polar sorbents in reversed-phase chromatography.
SiliaBond TMA Acetate (SAX-2) nec (R66430B)Strong anion exchangers (SAX) have been widely used in both chromatography and ion exchange SPE to selectively bind acidic drugs and/or analytes. In particular, weakly acidic compounds can be effectively extracted as those types of sorbents retain a permanent positive charge across the pH range. Most commercially available silica-based SAX sorbents are produced with a high selectivity chloride counter ion which reduced retention of acidic drugs when compared with lower selectivity counter ions such as acetate.
SiliaBond TMA Chloride (SAX) (R66630B)SiliaBond TMA Chloride (SiliaBond SAX, Si-TMACl) is mainly used as strong anion exchanger (SAX) in ion chromatography and ion exchange SPE. The function bears a positive charge across the whole pH range as well as in organic solvents. It is especially used for the “Catch and Release” purification of weak acids.
SiliaBond TMA Chloride (SAX) nec (R66530B)SiliaBond TMA Chloride (SiliaBond SAX, Si-TMACl) is mainly used as strong anion exchanger (SAX) in ion chromatography and ion exchange SPE. The function bears a positive charge across the whole pH range as well as in organic solvents.
SiliaBond Diol nec (R35030B)SiliaBond Diol may also be used as polar sorbent in normal phase and aqueous size exclustion chromatography. Like bare silica, SiliaBond Diol has the ability to form hydrogen bonds and the capacity to separate structural isomers. Since most of its surface is covered with organic functions, the SiliaBond Diol absorbs less water, which leads to a more reproducible activity. It is also the sorbent of choice when working in normal phase in the presence of water.
SiliaBond Cyano (CN, 7%C) nec (R38130B)SiliaBond Cyano (Si-CN) can be used both in normal and reversed-phase chromatography as its polarity marks the separation between the polar and non-polar phases. SiliaBond Cyano is the least retentive polar sorbent in normal phase chromatography and the least retentive of the non-polar sorbents in reversed-phase chromatography.
SiliaBond BTMA Chloride (R65030B)SiliaBond® BTMA Chloride is mainly used as strong anion exchanger (SAX) in ion chromatography and ion exchange SPE. The function bears a positive charge across the whole pH range as well as in organic solvents. It is especially used for the “Catch and Release” purification of weak acids.
SiliaMetS DEAM (R54430B)SiliaMetS DEAM is a versatile scavenger designed to remove trace metal or boronic acids from reaction intermediates or final APIs
SiliaBond Hydroxybenzotriazole (HOBt) (R70730B)SiliaBond® HOBt can be easily activated and should ideally be used with a base such as N,N-diisopropylethylamine in the same condition as in homogeneous solution. Moreover, this supported reagent can be reused a few times without adversely affecting its performance.
SiliaBond Guanidine (GUA) (R68230B)SiliaBond Guanidine is a silica-supported diisopropylguanidine ligand. It is a very powerful scavenger for the chelating of organic acids in general, especially boronic acids and phenolic acids. It may also be used as a very strong base. It is sufficiently basic to deprotonate moderately acidic hydrogens, as in the alkylation of amines and phenols (Williamson ether synthesis) and the esterification of carboxylic acids using alkyl halides.
SiliaBond Carbamate (CAR) (R50130B)SiliaBond® Isocyanate (Si-ISO) is a versatile scavenger for nucleophiles. It readily scavenges amines, thiols, thiolates, alcohols, alkoxides, and acidic phenols. Loading is determined by the removal of benzylamine in hexane at room temperature.
SiliaBond Maleimide (MAL) (R71030B)SiliaBond® Maleimide (Si-MAL) has been designed to scavenge thiols. 90% of mercaptoethanol was removed with 4 eq. after 15 minutes in an aqueous environment. Complete scavenging was observed after 3 hours. SiliaBond Maleimide can also be used to immobilize peptides and proteins through the cysteine residues. 95% of L-cysteine was immobilized after only 15 minutes in a pH 4.5 buffered solution using 4 eq. of SiliaBond Maleimide.
SiliaBond Tosyl Chloride (R44030B)SiliaBond (Si-TsCl) readily reacts with nucleophiles such as amines and alcohols. Reaction with alcohols yields the bound tosylate, which can then be used to synthesize amines and oxazolines.
SiliaBond Tridecafluoro (TDF) (R63530B)SiliaBond Tridecafluoro (Si-TDF) is a sorbent primarily used to separate fluorinated molecules. It can also be used in fluorous solid-phase extraction (FSPE) of fluorous-tag compounds as reported for the synthesis of oligosaccharide.
SiliaBond Fluorochrom (FCM) nec (R63730B)SiliaBond Fluorochrom (Si-FCM) is a fluorinated sorbent particularly useful for the separation of fluorine containing molecules from non-fluorous ones. The applications of these types of sorbent are not limited to fluorous compounds but may also be used in chromatographic separation of non-fluorinated molecules, just like a regular reversed-phase would do, but with different selectivity